Friday, 27 May 2016 15:50

Migration of population – historical milestones and the importance of migration both for the present and the future Beginnings of human migration

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Migration of population – historical milestones and the importance of migration both for the present and the future Beginnings of human migration It is generally assumed that the first human ancestors appeared four million years ago in Africa. Only two million years ago, when the development of a new hominid species (homo erectus – upright man) humanity embarked its first pilgrimage. Due to the natural conditions (the end of periodic Ice Ages playing an essential part in human´s advance), homo erectus began to migrate, quickly usually in groups direct to the south. Within a few generations he got to the very southern Tip of the African continent and north to the Horn of Africa. Subsequently, his steps led to the west and east, perhaps to southern Europe. The rate of this migration was remarkable. Fossil findings also attested that the genus Homo erectus on their travels came to the coast of the Black Sea and China. Later, however, the genus Homo erectus became completely extinct and the story of humanity today and its colonization of the planet is the history of the genus Homo sapiens (wise man). Roughly 400,000 years B.C., the genus of the first genetically identifiable humans, Homo sapiens developed in the same African environment. These first people finally spread throughout the world. Humankind remained on the southern half of the African continent for tens of thousand years. Later, they travelled north along the Nile River and apparently appeared on the Egyptian coast. Subsequently, Homo sapiens headed east, left Africa and moved to what is now Israel and Lebanon.Studies have shown, that the first migration wave front facing approximately 73 000 years B.C .on the territory of contemporary Asia, European settlement was found later. Migrant people have found out that the best condition for survival will have those following the coast, where they had food available. In this way, over many centuries, they came to the southern Tip of the Arabian Peninsula, further and further away from Africa. Eventually, they have overcome and the Strait of Hormuz and got into Asia. Then they continued along the west coast of India, then turned north and followed the eastern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Then they went to the south, the coastal areas of Burma and Thailand, to come to places near Java. It is estimated that this journey across the continent took our ancestors 10,000 years. People later found their way to Australia, which at that time was much higher than today (also included New Guinea and Tasmania).Australia and Pacific Islands were inhabited approximately 40 000 years B.C . In the rage of 34 000 – 20 000 years BC migration hit Siberia, Alaska, and later also North, Central and South America. It is supposed, that people crossed the wide land bridge that connected Eurasia and North America in places where it is now separated by the Bering Strait. They have spread throughout the continent very quickly and finally found a way through Mexico trip to South America.Global warming associated with the Ice Age ( 9 000 or 10000 years ago), which brought about big geographical changes all over the world.Followed by global warming associated with the end of the Ice Age (9000 and 10 000 years ago), which yielded a massive geographical changes worldwide. The level of sea has risen and due it Australia was cut off from the rest of the world, from Britain and Japan became the islands and many places along which people walked earlier, gobbled by the sea. When the climate was stabilized, continents and oceans acquired its present form.
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